词根：-ton-(变形: ton, tound, tun) 声调→高声调"当~~"→吃惊
(1) atone 弥补
实例：Jesus is called the lamb of God because God sent his son to atone for our sins.
(2) detonation 爆轰
实例：Nuclear weapons cause massive detonations, and cities sometimes plan a careful detonation of an abandoned building in order to make room for a new structure.
(3) intonation 声调,语调
实例：His voice had a very slight German intonation.
(4) overtone 暗示,弦外之音
实例：It's a quite profound story, with powerful religious overtones.
(5) undertone 低声,言下之意
记忆方法：under(在下面)+tone(语调; 色调)→ 语调在下面→ 低声,言下之意
实例：1. Well-dressed clients were talking in polite undertones as they ate. 2. His soft words contained an undertone of warning.
114. 简单词 phone 电话
词根：-pho-(变形: pha, phe)说话
(1) prophet 预言家，先知
衍生: prophecy n. 预言; prophesy vt. 预言
实例：The faithful revered him then as a prophet.
(2) euphemism 委婉语
实例：A euphemism is a polite word or expression that is used to refer to things which people may find upsetting or embarrassing to talk about, for example sex, the human body, or death.
(3) symphony 交响乐
实例：A symphony is the name of a type of classical music (a long, complex sonata) and the large orchestra that plays that music.
实例：Such euphony is hard to resist.
(5) cacophony 难听的声音
实例：From its cacophony of sound, the room has suddenly become very still.
(6) phonograph 留声机
实例：Put a record on the phonograph and let's have some music.
115. 简单词 attitude 态度
(1) altitude 高度
实例：The high altitude of the Himalayan mountain range slowed the progress of the hikers.
(2) plentitude 充足
实例：Despite its plentitude, this light is hard to see because it is diffuse throughout the sky and is outshone by brighter foreground sources. (Scientific American, May 28, 2015)
(3) certitude 确定
实例：Their equality of opportunity, of income and of wealth suffered along with the destruction of whole ways of life and moral, familial, and sexual certitudes. (Salon, May 8, 2017)
(4) fortitude 坚韧
实例：Eating fried worms might require a lot of intestinal fortitude.
(5) gratitude 感谢的态度
实例：I've been thinking about my family in Iraq, feeling a heavy gratitude that my life is here and not there.
(6) verisimilitude 逼真
实例：At the required level of visual verisimilitude, computer animation is costly.
116. 简单词 detrimental 有害的/ try尝试/ triple 三
词根: -tri-(变形: trit, try) 1. 摩擦(detrimental=de(不好)+tri(摩擦)+mental→磨损坏了→有害的); 2. 尝试; 3. 三.
(1) attrition 摩擦, 磨损
实例：The rebels have declared a ceasefire in their war of attrition against the government.
(2) trite 陈词滥调的
实例：A love song with lyrics about holding hands in the sunshine? Totally trite.
(3) triteness 平凡,陈腐
实例：Apart from its triteness and emptiness, the paragraph above is bad because of the structure of its sentences, with their mechanical symmetry and singsong.
(1) ardor 热情
近义词: passion, zeal
实例：Not even the rising wind had any power to damp her ardour as she flew along the causeway.
(2) arid/ avid 干旱的,贫瘠的,无趣的/热情的
记忆方法：三个单词,arid, acid, avid放在一起记忆, arid(rid→丢弃→需要丢弃掉的,干旱而贫瘠), vid=vivid(热情的)
实例：1.The scientists were developing new strains of crops that can withstand arid conditions.
2. If you're an avid reader, it means you read as much as you can, whenever you can.
(3)fragrant/ flagrant 芳香的/恶臭的; 臭名远扬的； 恶名昭著的
记忆方法：两个词一起记忆,fragrant, r=rose而flagrant, l=舀粪的勺子
实例：1. The forest was cool and fragrant, and the walk through it calmed my spirits.
2. That is clearly an unauthorised and flagrant abuse of the facilities of this House and an unauthorised use of taxpayers' money.
(4) redolent 让人想起的,有香味的
实例：The air was redolent of cannabis.
(5) balmy 有香气的
实例： The sun had lost its fierce heat and the air was golden and balmy.
(6) ascetic 禁欲的,苦行僧的
实例：The monks lived a very ascetic life.
(7) assuage 减轻
近义词: alleviate, mitigate, pacify, soothe, ameliorate
实例： My physical hunger could be quite quickly assuaged, my mental starvation was a different matter.
实例：They would think me, if not a genius, then at least astute.
衍生：atrocious残暴的; 反义词: benign
实例：It was not until half a century later in the 1990s that these atrocities came to light and created an international scandal.
(10) truculent 无理好斗的
记忆方法：联想记忆: tru(联想 true 真的)+cu(读音联想'哭')+lent(读音联想'弄')→ 真的被弄哭了→ 因为尖刻好斗伤得很致命
近义词: impertinent, imprudent
实例：If you say that someone is truculent, you mean that they are bad-tempered and aggressive